Introduction to C++ Language : Know Difference Between C++ and Java

What is C++ Programming Language?

What is C++? C++ is an amalgamation of several other languages into a single one. The first thing that comes to mind when you hear the term “what is C++” is: the most widely-used source code management language in use on the world market. C++ is the core development language for the C++ standard. As such, C++ can be seen as the most utilized – and therefore used – variant of C.

In addition, what is C++ can be considered a more generic general-purpose programming language. The C++ programming language can be thought of as a variant of C, but with a number of significant differences. For example, unlike C, where a program is essentially a series of unsophisticated commands (like “int main (void)”), with C++ the user is encouraged to give specific names to their variables, functions, and procedures. Also, while a C program’s sole purpose is to compile code, with C++ a programmer can specify types, provide type names, and define function templates.

What is C++ best used for? C++ can be seen as a tool, or more specifically a development environment, for handling complex C/C++ programs. Typically, C++ developers are not concerned with high-level programming or large data structures. Instead, the focus of C++ programming is on program functionality, i.e. how a C++ program implements its program instructions.

Another difference between C++ is C++’s support of exception handling. While all C programmers should be familiar with exception handling, it is an additional feature C++ developers will come to love. Unlike Java, with which every object has a single special static variable for handling an exception, in C++ all objects have a default exception handling routine. With this feature, a programmer does not need to explicitly handle an exception. Instead, the default handler handles all exceptions.

One of the biggest disadvantages of C++ as compared to Java is its lack of object orientation. One of the largest problems with traditional procedural programming is dealing with the implicit relationship between data types and function calls. In traditional Java programming, programmers would need to convert data types into references to function arguments and vice versa, but in C++ this process is implicit, making it much harder to reason about.

Another significant difference between c++ and c is the addition of const and volatile keywords. A const keyword enables a code to be optimized away, and a volatile keyword makes it possible for multiple functions to share a single memory space. The addition of these two additional features was one of the most significant changes that C++ made from Java, and it led to the separation of the two languages.

A major advantage of c++ over Java is the fact that there is no requirement to write source code. The compilers translate C++ source code into machine code. This eliminates the need for a programmer to know anything about C++. In other words, c++ is purely compilers based language. The main advantage of c++ over Java is that it can use a standard C-like syntax, but it also provides a number of other features.

The main disadvantage of C++ as compared to Java is that the standard library is significantly smaller than the one found in Java. Even though the standard library in Java is much larger than in C++, the standard library in C++ is considerably smaller than the one in Java. This means that a Java application using C++ will have to deal with a large number of external classes and files. Also, a large part of the standard library of Java is in C++, which makes the C++ program having to deal with large numbers of classes and files much more difficult. One of the biggest advantages of the C++ programming language is that it can be used with the Microsoft Window program without any loss of features.

Also Read – Immutable Class in Java

Programming Language C++ Vs Java

Comparison of Programming Languages: The major differences between Java and C++ have to do with their underlying structures. Java is primarily an object-oriented language, whereas C++ is primarily a procedural language. Although both languages can be used for high-level programming, they have different strengths and weaknesses. Most experts believe that Java will eventually become the de facto standard programming language in the world over C++.

Memory Management: One of the biggest difference between C++ and Java is in their memory management strategies. In C++ you can have multiple functions call simultaneously without worrying about memory management. This is true for either function pointer or constraining variable. However, Java does not allow any function to have multiple return values at the same time. Also, Java allows a single function to perform multiple operations at the same time which can lead to performance issues.

Java Architectures: Another difference between C++ and Java is in their architectural foundations. Java was designed as a more generic general-purpose programming language while C++ was designed to provide support for object-oriented software such as the Java platform. Java also makes heavy use of the garbage collector while C++ does not. The use of garbage collector means less memory usage and a faster overall execution speed. However, the use of jit compiler allows for greater code optimizer capabilities than the c++ standard.

Libraries: The difference between C++ and Java is mainly in the range of libraries they offer to the programmer. C++ has a large standard library of standard C++ functions while Java does not. The Java language specification does not define the set of C++ functions that may be available to the programmer. The C++ language specification does define the set of C++ standard functions.

Programmer’s Advantage: The primary advantage of C++ over Java is that it allows the programmer to write Java-like code using a higher level of programming languages. The primary disadvantage of Java is that it has limited portability. This restriction is due to the fact that Java is not compatible with many different platforms. However, portable Java code still exists. Some of the common language components such as the Java platform interface, the Java base classes and the Java template libraries also compile well with c++.

C++ Class Template Environments: Java allows the developer to design a Java virtual machine with standard class templates which enables easy code portability. However, in contrast, C++ does not provide a similar facility. C++ compilers cannot be used to create a portable program as Java. A Java program compiled with a c++ compiler will execute in a virtual machine implemented using the C++ standard library, whereas a C++ program written with a c++ compiler will execute in a different type of machine which is implemented using the C++ standard library. One of the main reasons for this difference is that while the C++ programming languages allow the programmer to write high-level programming languages like Java, they prevent him/her from writing portable programs.

Java Bounds Checking and Static typing: C++ has some powerful features such as bounds checking and static typing, which are not available in Java. In C++ the programmer can specify the type of bounds checking, which is not available in Java. C++ also provides more control over memory management than Java. In Java the garbage collector is used to manage the memory resources of the program. However, with C++ the programmer can opt for different garbage collector’s which are available with the standard library of Java.

Memory Safety: The major difference between C++ and Java is regarding the memory safety. Java stores types and values in native types which are translated to C using the pointer arithmetic language. C++ on the other hand uses a memory model based on traditional functions and operator overloads. This means that instead of dealing with pointers, Java memory safety comes with the use of smart pointer. C++ has no support for virtual functions, static variables, or static constructors which are important for memory safety.

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